July 21, 2013
In the aftermath of 9/11, President George W. Bush guided the Patriot Act through Congress, unilaterally expanded surveillance of Americans, amplified executive detention authority and took other dramatic measures that shifted the balance between liberty and government power significantly, in the name of national security.
After the initial Patriot Act was passed, many Democrats perceived the growing threat to civil liberties and started to have misgivings. Now, five years into the Obama presidency enthusiasm for these measures seems to be bipartisan.
As a presidential candidate, Barack Obama in 2007 and 2008 argued that sacrificing liberties in the name of anti-terrorism posed long-term risks. He condemned military commissions and violations of habeas corpus as serious threats to “the great traditions of our legal system and our way of life.” He called the Patriot Act “shoddy” and “dangerous.”
Senator Obama sharply criticized President Bush’s surveillance policies as going beyond the boundaries of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and the Fourth Amendment. He vowed that if elected he would run an administration of unprecedented transparency and vigorously protect whistleblowers.
President Obama’s deeds have not matched Senator Obama’s words. Indeed, he has raised the stakes.
He promised to close Guantanamo by January 2010, but instead slowed down releases from Guantanamo and vastly expanded the prison camp at Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan.
In 2009, he announced a policy of “prolonged detention,” ensuring indefinite imprisonment for detainees, including those against whom the U.S. government had no evidence of wrongdoing. In 2011, he signed the renewal of the Patriot Act. He has increased the role of unmanned drones and claims the authority to order a strike against any suspected terrorist: no trial necessary.
He also has expanded the surveillance operations of the National Security Agency (NSA), monitoring phone and internet traffic in a seemingly indiscriminate manner. The full extent is uncertain, but the goal is “total information awareness,” an idea floated shortly after 9/11.
The agency spies not just on Americans, but on residents of U.S. allies and other friendly countries. Germany, where President Obama has enjoyed high popularity, has protested particularly loudly, knowing well the dangers of totalitarian surveillance powers.